Wojnarowska, Magdalena; Muradin, Magdalena; Pink, Małgorzata
According to Demeter association data, the biodynamic method in viticulture and wine production is gaining popularity every year. Biodynamics is a type of agriculture, a philosophical approach to farming, the concept of the world, and the cosmos. One of the foundations of biodynamics is a need to preserve biodiversity. This is related to the abandonment of the use of herbicides and pesticides, which are harmful not only to plant parasites but also to microorganisms supporting the work of the root system and facilitate the absorption of microelements as well as insects, other invertebrates, birds, and other animals. The basis of plant nutrition is compost and preparations based on minerals and herbs are also suitable. In a wine cellar, the use of selected yeast, additives, enzymes, or sugars, as well as methods and measures for thickening, acidifying, deacidifying, and clarifying wine are very limited. The literature can be found that determines the environmental impact of biodynamic, conventional, and biodynamic-conventional winemaking using the life cycle assessment. The aim of the research was to conduct a comparative assessment of the eco-efficiency using LCA and LCC analysis of wine-producing farms. This research focused mainly on the analysis of wine production, including the vinification process, bottling, and distribution. All farms have Demeter biodynamic certification and organic production certificates and are located in Burgenland, Austria. They are producing both – for a local market and export. However, they differ in size and level of biodiversity. Agricultural areas vary from a few to several hundred hectares, but the cultivation of vines in each case covers just a part of the area. According to the biodynamics principles, crops are divided into other plantings. The farms also keep cattle, sheep, and poultry. The results show that the main hotspots of eco-efficiency evaluation are determined by the size of a farm and the bottled wine distribution.