TU.2.B || Future Sustainable Lifestyles – Urban Structure
The ongoing climate urgency has led to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to be the most often inventoried lifecycle indicators. But, to draw comprehensive climate mitigation strategies (CMS), adverse potential environmental side-effects and trade-offs should be assessed as well. LCA is used to assess the potential environmental co-benefits and trade-offs of a net-zero-emission neighbourhood (nZEN) in the early planning stages. CMS are designed to test for the effect of (1) mobility patterns less based on the use of passenger cars, (2) a better material use by decreasing the size of the dwellings and increasing the passenger loads, (3) increased lifetimes of buildings and passenger cars, and (4) their combination. Across the impact categories, environmental benefits of 5–20% are shown for single CMS and of 22–42% when combined. Interestingly, the highest environmental co-benefits are found for Metal Depletion, highlighting the close interconnection of CMS and decreased pressure on resource use. To best mitigate climate change along with environmental co-benefits on a nZEN level, measures should be taken at different points in time. At the early planning stages, incentives should be in place that promote dwellings of reasonable sizes (measured per inhabitant) along with incentives to decarbonize the materials value chains, in- and out-land. Over time, a culture of car- and ride-sharing will have positive environmental benefits. When renovating, incentives that promote the reshaping of dwellings into dwellings of smaller sizes will help to shift the sole focus on nZEB standards to multi-layers strategies.