MO.2.D || Carbon Inventory and Management of Bio-Based Materials for a Post-Fossil Bioeconomy

Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Raadal, Hanne Lerche

Carbon capture and storage (CCS), and utilization (CCU), is increasingly focused as important solutions for climate mitigation. While some countries concentrate on developing CCS value chains, others are more attentive towards utilising captured CO2 to produce fuels or chemicals. NORSUS is part of the CCUS Øra cluster project, which aims to develop new small-scale technology, decarbonization and transport solutions, as well as sustainable use and storage of CO2. The project is funded by the Norwegian CLIMIT programme. In this project we examine which solution is most environmentally preferable for the companies and value chains involved. Climate change is of major interest, but other environmental indicators are also included. Three systems are compared: – A CCS system capturing CO2 from the magazine paper plant – A CCU system capturing CO2 from the same magazine paper plant, using the CO2 to produce methanol – A reference system Using LCA to CCU is known to be subject to methodological pitfalls. Hence, the analysis is based on system expansion and a joint functional unit, meaning that the systems are producing the same amount of magazine paper and methanol. The renewable energy used for recycling carbon is included as avoided burdens in the systems where this energy is not needed (CCS and reference) in order to take into account that renewable energy is likely to constitute a scarce resource. The project is ongoing and LCA results will be ready in April/May 2021. These will give valuable input when deciding which system to proceed with.