MO.2.D || Carbon Inventory and Management of Bio-Based Materials for a Post-Fossil Bioeconomy

Løkke, Søren

Goal: This paper investigates the diversity of LCA’s of biomass based industrial processes in a range of industries, including construction, woodworking, textiles, pulp and paper, and bio-chemicals. These sectors represent core parts of the bio-economy that, in line with the European Green Deal and its Zero Pollution ambition and the 2030 Climate Target Plan, must live up to high standards in supporting the reversal of climate change, and concurrently securing the protection and improvement of biodiversity and protection of air, water and soil quality. These sectors, despite drawing on comparable and connected resources, are today characterized by being informed by a high number of methodological different assessment methodologies. The paper investigate approaches currently used to assess industrial processes in construction, woodworking, textiles, pulp and paper, and bio-chemicals with a focus on assessment of both climate change and carbon emissions, and the potential trade-offs between climate change mitigation and negative impacts on biodiversity or ecosystem services. Furthermore, the paper will evaluate modelling assumptions including iLUC (indirect land-use-change), use of marginal or average technologies, and supply situations. The paper will forward recommendations on how to improve best practice. Methods: The core of the paper is a literature review of LCA’s published in recognized journals and contrast with the PEF-system. The output of the review is an overview of core assumptions regarding iLUC, functional units, feedstock scenarios, system-modelling principles. Results: The paper gives an insight to the consequences of modelling approaches applied in contemporary LCA’s of bio-based products in construction, woodworking, textiles, pulp and paper, and bio-chemicals. The results create a starting point for discussing recommendations for the improvement of a common approach for assessing the lifecycle performance of bio-based industrial processes.